Subsistence Harvest Documentation Project (SHDP)
|Principal Investigators||Taqulik Hepa, Carla Sims Kayotuk|
|Collaborators||Braund and Associates, Department of the Interior Bureau of Land Management|
The North Slope Borough has made a commitment to develop information about the region’s subsistence harvest and to share some of this information with state and federal government wildlife agencies and private industry. Subsistence Specialists are present in most North Slope communities and have been trained to use surveys to obtain subsistence harvest information in their community. Harvest data is collected for all resources. The data is collected every six months. The Subsistence Specialists attempt to survey all households in each community, except in Barrow where households are selected at random. Community harvest information may be made available to state and federal wildlife management agencies, but individual household level data remains confidential and under the control of the North Slope Borough.
The objectives of the Subsistence Harvest Documentation Project are:
- To document the level of subsistence harvested animals (caribou, seals, migratory birds, fish, etc.) required by each village in the North Slope Borough to meet its nutritional and cultural needs.
- To obtain the harvest and land use data that will:
- Allow greater local participation in the management of wildlife resources within the North Slope Borough.
- Help the North Slope Borough better represent the people of the North Slope, when dealing with state and federal regulatory agencies that may wish to establish harvest quotas or other restrictive harvest guidelines.
- Mitigate oil and gas industry activities.
Benefits & Uses of Subsistence Harvest Data:
- Document fish and wildlife nutritional and cultural needs of residents of the North Slope Borough.
- Document harvest patterns and subsistence land use.
- Provide accurate information on the harvest of resources so that informed wildlife management decisions can be made.
- Control our own information and the use of data.
- To enable us to respond to important issues relating to our subsistence lifestyles.
- Protect subsistence resources for future generations.
If you need additional information regarding the Subsistence Harvest Documentation Project, or have questions or concerns, please call Project Coordinator Carla Sims Kayotuk at the North Slope Borough Department of Wildlife Management at (907) 852-0350.
Examples of data collected from past Subsistence Harvest Surveys are listed below,
Caribou Harvest Survey Data from Anaktuvuk Pass, 1994-2006
This project has been ongoing for many years. However, the need for accurate harvest numbers from all villages continues to be important as we work with state and federal subsistence resource regulators. Our documentation helps enable local control of wildlife management in meeting our nutritional and cultural needs, and this could not happen without the cooperation of hunters across the Slope. The DWM has recently surveyed hunters in Anaktuvuk Pass and Kaktovik. We will be reaching all of the villages soon. Below is the report on the village of Kaktovik. Other reports pending.
Subsistence Harvest Documentation Project Brochure (December 2019):
Subsistence Harvest Documentation Reports:
- Brower, H.K., and R. Opie. 1996. North Slope Borough Subsistence Harvest Documentation Project: Data for Anaktuvuk Pass, Alaska for the period July 1, 1994 to June 30, 1995. North Slope Borough Department of Wildlife Management, Barrow, Alaska.
- Fuller, A.S., and J.C. George. 1997. Evaluation of Subsistence Harvest data from the North Slope Borough 1993 Census for Eight North Slope Villages: for the Calendar Year 1992. North Slope Borough Department of Wildlife Management, Barrow, Alaska.
- Hepa, R., H.K. Brower, and D. Bates. 1997. North Slope Borough Subsistence Harvest Documentation Project: Data for Atqasuk, Alaska for the period July 1, 1994 to June 30, 1995. North Slope Borough Department of Wildlife Management, Barrow, Alaska.
- Brower, H.K., and R. Hepa. 1998. North Slope Borough Subsistence Harvest Documentation Project: Data for Nuiqsut, Alaska for the period July 1, 1994 to June 30, 1995. North Slope Borough Department of Wildlife Management, Barrow, Alaska.
- Brower, H.K., T.P. Olemaun, and R. Hepa. 2000. North Slope Borough Subsistence Harvest Documentation Project: Data for Kaktovik, Alaska for the period December 1, 1994 to November 30, 1995. North Slope Borough Department of Wildlife Management, Barrow, Alaska.
- Bacon, J.J., et al. 2009. Estimates of Subsistence Harvest for Villages on the North Slope of Alaska, 1994-2003. North Slope Borough Department of Wildlife Management, Barrow, Alaska.
- Harcharek, Q., C.S. Kayotuk, J.C. George, M. Pederson. 2018. Qaaktuġvik/Kaktovik, Subsistence Harvest Report 2007-2012. Technical report prepared by the North Slope Borough Department of Wildlife Management, Barrow, Alaska. 63 pp.
Young boy’s first goose hunt – Ernest Nageak with his father Roy. Photo: Bill Hess
Pulling in nets on the Meade River. Photo: Cyd Hanns
Caribou Subsistence Harvest Monitoring:
- Braund, S.R. & Associates. 2010. Nuiqsut Caribou Subsistence Monitoring Project: Results of 2009 hunter interviews. Report prepared for ConocoPhillips Alaska, Inc.
- Braund, S.R. & Associates. 2012. Nuiqsut Caribou Subsistence Monitoring Project: Results of Year Three hunter interviews and household harvest surveys. Report prepared for ConocoPhillips Alaska, Inc.
- Braund, S.R. & Associates. 2013. Nuiqsut Caribou Subsistence Monitoring Project: Results of Year 4 hunter interveiws and household harvest surveys. Report prepared for ConocoPhillips Alaska, Inc.
- Braund, S.R. & Associates. 2017. Nuiqsut Caribou Subsistence Monitoring Project: Results of Year 8 hunter interviews and household harvest surveys. Final report prepared for ConocoPhillips Alaska, Inc.
- Person, B., C. Kayotuk, and F. Olemaun. 2019. Subsistence Harvest of Caribou in Eight North Slope Villages, Alaska: 2014-2018. Technical Report NSB-DWM-01-19 prepared for the North Slope Borough Department of Wildlife Management, Utqiagvik, Alaska.
Other Subsistence Use Documentation:
- Lowenstein, T. 1981. Some Aspects of Sea Ice Subsistence Hunting in Point Hope, Alaska: a Report. Barrow, AK: North Slope Borough.
- Braund, S.R. and D.C. Burnham. 1984. Subsistence Economics, Marine Resource Use Patterns, and Potential OCS Impacts for Chukchi Sea Communities. Anchorage, AK: Stephen R. Braund & Associates.
- Braund, S.R. & Associates. 1985. Review of cumulative impact assessment literature and North Slope Borough development projects. Special Report No. 5 prepared for U.S. Department of Interior, MMS, Alaska OCS Region.
- Braund, S.R. & Associates. 1988. North Slope Subsistence Study Barrow 1987. Technical Report No. 133 prepared for the U.S. Department of Interior, MMS OCS Study 88-0080.
- Braund, S.R. & Associates. 1993. North Slope Subsistence Study: Wainwright 1988 and 1989. Report prepared for the Minerals Management Service Alaska OCS Region, U.S. Department of Interior, MMS OCS Study 91-0073.
- Braund, S.R. & Associates. 1993. North Slope Subsistence Study: Barrow 1987, 1988 and 1989. Report prepared for the Minerals Management Service Alaska OCS Region, U.S. Department of Interior, MMS OCS Study 91-0086.
- Braund, S.R. & Associates. 2009. Impacts and benefits of oil and gas development to Barrow, Nuiqsut, Wainwright and Atqasuk harvesters. Report prepared for the North Slope Borough Department of Wildlife Management.
- Braund, S.R. & Associates. 2009. Synthesis: Three decades of research on socioeconomic effects related to offshore petroleum development in coastal Alaska. Report prepared for the U.S. Department of Interior. MMS OCS Study 2009-006.
- Braund, S.R. & Associates. 2010. Subsistence Mapping of Nuiqsut, Kaktovik, and Barrow. Report prepared for the Minerals Management Service Alaska OCS Region, U.S. Department of Interior. MMS OCS Study 2009-003.
- Braund, S.R. & Associates. 2013. Aggregate effects of oil industry operations on Inupiaq subsistence activities, Nuiqsut, Alaska: A history and analysis of mitigation and monitoring. Technical Report No. BOEM 2013-212 prepared for u.S. Departmnet of Interior, BOEM, Alaska OCS Region, Anchorage, Alaska.
- Braund, S.R. & Associates. 2013. COMIDA: Impact Monitoring for Offshore Subsistence Hunting, Wainwright and Point Lay, Alaska. US Dept. of the Interior, Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Alaska OCS Region. Anchorage, Alaska. OCS Study BOEM 2013-211. 298pp.
- Braund, S.R. & Associates. 2014. Subsistence use areas and traditional knowledge study for Point Lay, Alaska: 1997-2006. Report prepared for North Slope Borough Department of Wildlife Management, Barrow, Alaska.
- Baggio, J.A., et al. 2016. Multiplex social ecological network analysis reveals how social changes affect community robustness more than resource depletion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/10.1073/pnas.1604401113.
- BurnSilver, S., et al. 2016. Are mixed economies persistent or transitional? Evidence using social networks from Arctic Alaska. American Anthropologist, DOI: 10.1111/aman.12447.
- Huntington, H.P., et al. 2016. Effects of changing sea ice on marine mammals and subsistence hunters in northern Alaska from traditional knowledge interviews. Biology Letters 12:20160198. dx.doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2016.0198.
- Kofinas, G., et al. 2016. Subsistence sharing networks and cooperation: Kaktovik, Wainwright, and Venetie, Alaska. BOEM Report 2015-023DOI: AFES Report MP 2015-02. School of Natural Resources and Extension, University of Alaska Fairbanks.
- Braund, S.R. & Associates. 2017. Social indicators in coastal Alaska: Arctic Communities. Final report prepared for U.S. Department of Interior, BOEM, Alaska OCS Region, Anchorage, Alaska. Technical Report No. BOEM 2017-035.
Spatial Aspects of Subsistence Project
|Principal Investigators||Qaiyaan Harcharek|
|Funding||NSB, Alaska Department of Commerce, Community and Economic Development|
Identifying geographical areas and travel routes within NPRA that are important to our subsistence users by using GPS technology and interviews with hunters. In this project, hunters are provided with a GPS unit specifically to gather data on their travel routes and hunting areas. This valuable data from these hunters will be used to develop maps describing the spatial distribution of subsistence use. As of June 2014, 17 hunters are participating. The DWM would like to have 20 more hunters involved in the project, especially hunters that are very active and travel long distances. At this time, we are focusing on adding hunters from Atqasuk, Nuiqsut and Wainwright. In the future, we hope to work with villages outside of NPR-A as well, and to include marine mammal hunting. We also welcome hunters that already have their own GPS unit to participate. Having representation from all areas and hunting locales is ideal. All information and data gathered from this study, as well as the harvest documentation project, is kept strictly confidential. Contact Qaiyaan Harcharek if you are interested in participating in either project.
- Download existing GPSs from active hunters and distribute additional GPS units specifically to gather additional data on travel routes and hunting areas. Gather pertinent information to define those geographic areas that are critical to the subsistence-use animals using hunter participation and GPS technologies.
- Develop a GIS database focusing on the spatial distribution aspects of subsistence, which can be used to describe subsistence resources and the patterns of use of subsistence resources.
- To document areas and routes that are currently used by subsistence hunters and fishers to harvest subsistence resources as baseline information before development occurs in this area.
Harcharek, Q. 2015. Spatial analysis of subsistence with GPS. Final Report prepared for the State of Alaska, Department of Commerce, Community and Economic Development. 80 pp.
Migratory Bird Subsistence Harvest Survey
|Principal Investigators||Mike Pederson|
|Collaborators||AMBCC, ADFG, USFWS|
During the spring and summer of 2006, 2008, 2009 and 2010 some households in some villages were asked to keep track of the number of birds and eggs taken for subsistence use. Villages throughout the subsistence eligible areas of Alaska participated in this survey. The Alaska Migratory Bird Co-Management Council in cooperation with its regional councils conducted the survey in order to provide information on subsistence uses of migratory and other birds, including eggs. It is important to have a record of how many birds and eggs are used for subsistence purposes so that the Alaska Migratory Bird Co-Management Council can cooperatively manage the Spring/Summer Alaska Subsistence Migratory Bird Harvest.
Thanks to all who helped by participating in the harvest surveys. Your honest responses helped to make each year’s survey a success. If you have any questions, please contact the Subsistence Research Coordinators, Billy Adams, at the NSB Department of Wildlife Management (907-852-0350) or your local Subsistence Research Assistant (see the Contact page for the names of the staff in the villages). Quyanaqpak!
Bird Identification Guide – North Slope – Compiled by the AMBCC for the North Slope Borough Subsistence Harvest Documentation project, this document contains pictures of 51 birds commonly seen on the North Slope.
Go to this page on our website for more information on Bird Identification.
Hunter Education and Information
- For information on Hunter Education and migratory bird hunting, please click here.
- ADF&G License and Permit Information – Here you will find general information from the Alaska Department of Fish & Game (ADF&G) on hunting, fishing and trapping licenses and permits. This checklist will help you decide which type of license or permit is needed for your fishing activity. This page will help you find information on all Alaska state wildlife regulations, including hunting and trapping.
- Taking and Using Marine Mammal products.
- Federal Duck Stamp Exemption for Subsistence Hunters Implementation Policy.
Subsistence migratory bird hunters Luke George, Gunnar Carroll, Whitlam Adams, and Bonnie Aishana. Photo: Geoff Carroll
Getting Harvest Sealed or Tagged
- Rabies: Facts about Rabies and Trapping (ADFG).
- Fact Sheet Regulations for Marine Mammal Parts Beach Found by Non-Natives (USFWS, 2001).
More Subsistence Resources
- Common Species on the North Slope:
- List of Names of Species on the North Slope – This list includes scientific names, common names, and Iñupiat names of fish, birds, mammals, and other animals.
- More Fish Identification Resources for the North Slope.
- Traditional Foods on the North Slope.
- Bowhead Subsistence Harvest Research (NSB-DWM).
- Health Assessment of Subsistence User Resources (NSB-DWM).
- AMBCC (Alaska Migratory Bird Co-management Council) Regulations – Go to this website to obtain up-to-date information on the Subsistence Harvest regulations.
- Kawerak Social Science Program – Kawerak, Inc., provides information on traditional uses of resources in their area.
- Alaska Department of Fish and Game Subsistence Regulations – Go to this ADFG website to find information on subsistence fishing, subsistence hunting, and more.
- Alaska Department of Fish and Game Wildlife Notebook Series – This webpage provides information on subsistence-hunted species in Alaska.
- Alaska Department of Fish and Game Species Profiles.
Articles and Reports:
- Co-management strengthens Marine Mammal Research in Alaska – October 2012 article on the NOAA Fisheries Service website describing their work with Alaska Native organizations, including the Alaska Beluga Whale Committee, the Alaska Eskimo Whaling Commission, and the Ice Seal Committee.
- Special Issue on Traditional Knowledge, BOEM Ocean Science, April/May/June 2012 – A BOEM publication highlighting the integration of traditional knowledge into their scientific studies.
- Iqaluich Niġiñaqtuat: Fish That We Eat – This report, written by Anore Jones, documents the traditional Iñupiaq knowledge of fish as food, including names, sketches, identification details, brief life histories, and recipes for gathering, preparation and use.
- Field to Freezer Meat Care (ADFG) – Information for hunters on how to care for meat, regulations on meat salvage and other information, including a video of butchering a moose.
- Sharing and Distribution of Whale Meat and other edible parts by the Inupiat Whalers in Barrow, Alaska, USA – Research Report by Nobuhiro Kishigami (2013) for the National Museum of Ethnology in Osaka, Japan.