Emerging Diseases Study
|Principal Investigators||Raphaela Stimmelmayr, Brian Person, NSB-DWM staff|
|Collaborators||Veterinary student Greta Krafsur, Dr. Terry Spraker (Colorado State University); Gay Sheffield (AMAP, Univ. of Alaska); David S. Rotstein (Marine Mammal Pathology Services, Maryland), Grazieli Maboni and Susan Sanchez (Univ. of Georgia), more collaborators to be added as studies continue|
|Funding||Alaska Department of Commerce, Community and Economic Development, ADFG, CSU|
This long-term project is designed to proactively monitor infectious disease in multiple species, in multiple villages across the NPRA region of the North Slope, with special focus on zoonotic diseases (diseases that can be transferred between animals and humans) of high public health significance to the residents of the NSB. Sampling of subsistence resources that are important to subsistence users is ongoing. It is important to monitor for new diseases in the area, and check for changes in frequency of existing diseases in the area. More baseline information still needs to be collected to assist with monitoring for climate and/or environmental changes and impacts from industrial development.
Emerging Diseases in Arctic Fox
Fox studies were carried out using carcasses originated from multi-year predator management efforts of Arctic fox culling conducted in May, June, and July within and near the Barrow Steller’s Eider Conservation Planning Area (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2002. Steller’s Eider Recovery Plan. Fairbanks, AK). The arctic fox is an important terrestrial and marine predator on the North Slope and an important subsistence species. No population estimate for the North Slope arctic fox population exists. Based on overall subsistence trapping efforts and success the local arctic fox population near Utqiagvik appears to be stable and sustainable. Apart from predation, subsistence trapping, and rabies infection being significant for the population, not much is known about the role of other disease factors. It is well known since the 1930’s that Arctic foxes are susceptible to canine distemper virus infection and sporadic die–offs of Arctic foxes in Canada and Alaska have been reported. Canine distemper virus is a viral disease that occurs worldwide and affects mostly carnivores including dogs (***pet dogs are protected from getting the disease through their annual dog vaccines – distemper shots). This is the first study to report and characterize tissue findings in several arctic foxes naturally infected with canine distemper virus. The canine distemper virus recovered from the arctic foxes type differs from other types identified in other animals (including dogs) from different parts of the world. The origin of this unique Arctic strain of canine distemper virus discovered in the examined foxes remains unclear.
- Stimmelmayr, R., et al. 2018. Morbillivirus-associated lipid pneumonia in Arctic foxes. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation DOI:10.1177/1040638718797382.
Emerging Diseases in Birds
- Sheffield, G., et al. 2015. Food for thought: Regional response to Avian Cholera in the Bering Strait region of Alaska. Poster presented at the Alaska Marine Science Symposium, Anchorage, Alaska, January 2015.
Other Health Concerns and Information
Cyamids or Whale Lice
Kidney Worms in Bowhead Whales
Liver Fluke Disease in Ice Seals
Marine Algae Toxins or Harmful Algal Blooms
- Lefebvre, K.A., et al. 2016. Prevalence of algal toxins in Alaskan marine mammals foraging in a changing arctic and subarctic environment. Harmful Algae 55:13-24.
- 2019 Alaska Harmful Algal Bloom (AHAB) Network Workshop Report.
- Trichinellosis (Trichinosis) Fact Sheet – Alaska Division of Public Health.
- Trichinellosis Cases – Alaska, 2005-2014. State of Alaska Epidemiology Bulletin, March 2015.
- Outbreaks of Trichinellosis linked to consumption of walrus meat. State of Alaska Epidemiology Bulletin, June 2017.
- Trichinellosis FAQs – CDC.
Fox/Dog Parasites – Echinococcus and Taenia
The following information on parasites found in fox and domestic dogs is taken from a study done by graduate student Cassandra Kirk (UAF). Samples used in the study were collected locally.
- “Echinococcus multilocularis were found only in arctic fox collected in 1999 in Barrow near the DEW-line, landfill or gravel pit. Taenia crassiceps was detected in animals sampled in all three years, at all locations, including both arctic fox and sled dogs in Barrow. Taenia polyacantha was detected in one arctic fox in 1999. Only T. crassiceps was detected in sled dogs and although PCR products of expected size were generated from all 12 animals, sequences could not be resolved for 7 dogs sampled due to the presence of multiple peaks. Isolates of a given species of parasite from individual arctic and red fox, as well as sled dogs were identical.”
- “We have unequivocally identified the species of Echinococcus present in arctic fox on the North Slope of Alaska as E. multilocularis. There is, however, little information available regarding the current ecology and transmission dynamics of E. multilocularis in the High Arctic. With anticipated changes in Arctic ecology due to climate change and increasing anthropogenic influences, prevalence of this zoonotic agent is likely to change. Because Echinococcus infection poses a significant public health concern; understanding its ecology in the Arctic and monitoring its prevalence will be necessary to understand the human health consequences of ongoing and projected changes in the Arctic. We suggest that canids present the best sentinels for monitoring the impact of climate change on the ecology of Echinococcus.”
- Kirk, Cassandra (2010). Molecular Ecology of Echinococcus and Taeniinae in Arctic Fox (Vulpes lagopus) of Northern Alaska: Characterization of the nad1 gene fragment of Echinococcus multilocularis and Taeniinae (Ph.D. Dissertation, Chapter 4). University of Alaska Fairbanks, Fairbanks, Alaska.
- This journal article documents the first identification of Echinococcus parasite found in lemmings in Barrow, Alaska: Holt, D.W., C. Hanns, T. O’Hara, K. Burek, and R. Frantz. 2005. New distribution records of Echinoccous multilocularis in the brown lemming from Barrow, Alaska, USA. Journal of Wildlife Diseases, 41(1):257-259.
- Find out more about the Echinococcus parasite and how to protect you and your pets here: “Echinococcus in Alaska,” State of Alaska Epidemiology Bulletin, February 2003. Go to http://www.epi.alaska.gov/bulletins/docs/b2003_02.pdf.
Field Guides to Diseases and Parasites
- A Field Guide TO COMMON WILDLIFE DISEASES AND PARASITES IN ALASKA – Alaska DF&G website contains information on many different species, including species of animals found on the North Slope. The page below lists information by disease and by animal species.
- Caribou Parasites (Newfoundland, Canada) – Here are three Wildlife Disease Factsheets published by the Government of Newfoundland and Labrador Department of Natural Resources:
- Parasites of Caribou (1): Brain Worm Infestation
- Parasites of Caribou (2): Fly Larvae Infestations
- Parasites of Caribou (3): Tapeworm Cysts
- Manual of Common Diseases and Parasites of Wildlife in Northern British Columbia – This website provides information on diseases found in northern British Columbia but it may be helpful with identifying diseases in northern Alaska as well.
- Field Manual of Wildlife Disease – General Field Procedures and Diseases of Birds – USGS – This online manual is a revision of a 1988 Volume 1, Field Guide to Wildlife Diseases (USFWS).
Other Health Assessment Reports and Monitoring Projects
BP Exploration’s Long-Term Monitoring of Nearshore Beaufort Sea Fishes in the Prudhoe Bay Region
The long-term study monitors the distribution, abundance and health of regional fish stocks in the Prudhoe Bay region.
- Fechhelm, R.G., A.M. Baker, B.E. Haley, M.R. Link. 2009. Year 27 of the long-term monitoring of nearshore Beaufort Sea fishes in the Prudhoe Bay region: 2009 annual report. Report for BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. by LGL Alaska Research Associates, Inc., Anchorage, Alaska. 82 pg.
- McCain, K.A., S.W. Raborn, R.G. Fechhelm. 2014. Year 31 of the long-term monitoring of nearshore Beaufort Sea fishes in the Prudhoe Bay region: 2013 annual report. Report for BP Exploration (Alaska) Inc. by LGL Alaska Research Associates, Inc., Anchorage, Alaska. 76 pg.
- NPR-A Fisheries Monitoring Implementation Plan (BLM) This plan was developed to monitor fish and fish habitats within NPR-A, with an emphasis on resources important to subsistence users. Objectives included assessing effect of oil and gas related activities and evaluating the effectiveness of current mitigation measures and management policies. This report was prepared by Lynn Noel, Lawrence Moulton, Matthew Whitman, and Lynett Bontrager for the US Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Arctic Field Office, Fairbanks, Alaska.
Alaska Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP)
- 2002 Southcentral Alaska EMAP Survey: Summary Report prepared by Susan Saupe, Douglas Dasher, and James Gendron. The Alaska Department of Environmental Conservation (DEC) used EMAP protocols to conduct sampling surveys in order to estimate ecological conditions of coastal areas in Alaska, including water quality, prey species abundance, and contaminant measures in sediments and fish tissues. Future phases of the study plan to monitor and assess the coastal areas of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas.
Arctic Nearshore Impact Monitoring in the Development Area Program (ANIMIDA)
- Brown, John. 2005. ANIMIDA Task 1: Core Contractor Program Management, Logistics, Database, and Reporting. Phase II Final Summary Report. Submitted to the US Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Anchorage, Alaska. This Final Summary Report provides an overview of the ANIMIDA project in the Prudhoe Bay area. This project was designed to “characterize the pre-construction environment near the proposed Northstar and Liberty developments and to monitor [the areas] over time.”
- Trefry, J.H. et al. 2009. cANIMIDA Tasks 3 and 4: Sources, concentrations, composition, partitioning and dispersion pathways for suspended sediments and potential metal contaminants in the coastal Beaufort Sea. Submitted to the US Department of the Interior, Minerals Management Service, Anchorage, Alaska.
Alaska Native Health Consortium (ANTHC) – Tribal health organization that manages Alaska Native health services.
- ANTHC Northern Climate Observer – Source of information on climate-related health issues in Alaska and other areas of the circumpolar north.
- Center for Climate and Health – Assisting communities to better understand the impacts of climate change and how to adapt in healthy ways. Includes Clime Maps and Bulletin Archive. Here are some examples of bulletins that can be found on this website:
- Brucellosis: Answers to Frequently Asked Questions
- Brucellosis: Understanding an Important Arctic Infectious Disease
- Climate Change effects on Traditional Food Cellars in Barrow, Alaska
- Source Drinking Water Challenges, Changes to an Arctic Tundra Lake
- Climate Change Effects on Traditional Inupiat Food Cellars
Other Studies and Papers
- Beckmen, K.B., et al. 1999. Factors affecting organochlorine contaminant concentrations in milk and blood of northern fur seal (Callorhinus ursinus) dams and pups from St. George Island, Alaska. The Science of the Total Environment 231:183-200.
- Hueffer, K. et al. 2013. Zoonotic infections in Alaska: disease prevalence, potential impacts of climate change and recommended actions for earlier disease detection, research, prevention and control. International Journal of Circumpolar Health 72:19562. Downloaded from http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/ijch.v72i0.19562.