Other Bowhead Anatomy and Physiology Studies

Haldiman, J.T., et al. 1985. Epidermal and papillary dermal characteristics of the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus).  Anat. Rec. 211:391-402.

Tarpley, R.J., et al. 1987.  Observations on the anatomy of the stomach and duodenum of the bowhead whale, Balaena mysticetus.  Am. J. Anat. 180:295-322.

Burns, J.J., J.J Montague and C.J. Cowles (eds.). 1993. The Bowhead Whale.  Special publication No. 2 of the Society of Marine Mammalogy. i-xxxvi + 787pp.

Haldiman, J.T. and Tarpley, R.T. 1993.  Anatomy and Physiology.  In:  J.J. Burns and J.J Montague and C.J. Cowles  (eds.). The Bowhead Whale.  Special publication No. 2 of the Society of Marine Mammalogy. i-xxxvi + 787pp.

Willetto, C., O'Hara, T., Rowles, T. 2002. Bowhead Whale Health and Physiology Workshop, 2002. Barrow, AK. 129 pp.

Ford, T.J., A.J. Werth, J.C. George. 2013. An intraoral thermoregulatory organ in the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus), the corpus cavernosum maxillaris. The Anatomical Record 296(4):701-708.

Moran, M.M., et al. 2014. Intervertebral and epiphyseal fusion in the postnatal ontogeny of cetaceans and terrestrial mammalsJournal of Mammalian Evolution DOI 10.1007/s10914-014-9256-7.

Schoenfuss, H.L, H.H. Bragulla, J. Schumacher, W.G Henk, J. C. George, D.J. Hillmann. 2014. The anatomy of the larynx of the bowhead whale, Balaena mysticetus, and its sound-producing functions. The Anatomical Record Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology 297(7):1316-1330.

Ball, H.C. et al. 2015. Seasonal and ontogenetic variation in subcutaneous adipose of the bowhead whale (Balaena mysticetus). Anatomical Record 298(8):1416-23.

George, J.C., R. Stimmelmayr, R. Suydam, S. Usip, G. Givens, T. Sformo, J. G. M. Thewissen. 2016. Severe bone loss as part of the life history strategy of bowhead whales. PLoS ONE 11(6):e0156753. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0156753

Werth, A.J. and J. Potvin. 2016. Baleen hydrodynamics and morphology of cross-flow filtration in Balaenid Whale suspension feeding. PLoS One 11(2): e0150106. doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150106. 

Rehorek, S.J., et al. 2019. Whale tear glands in the bowhead and the beluga whales: Source and function. Journal of Morphology, DOI:10.1002.jmor.21099. 

Miller, C.A., Holm, H.C., Horstmann, L., George, J.C., Fredricks, H.F., Van Mooy, B.A.S., Apprill, A. 2020. Coordinated transformation of the gut microbiome and lipidome of bowhead whales provides novel insights into digestion. ISME Journal, 14:688–701. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41396-019-0549-y

Werth, A.J., T.L. Sformo, N.S. Lysiak, D. Rita, J.C. George. 2020. Baleen turnover and gut transit in mysticete whales and its environmental implications. Polar Biology 43:707-723, DOI:10.1007/s00300-020-02673-8.

Drawing of a bowhead whale skeleton. (Drawing by Craig George and Hans Thewissen)

Drawing of a bowhead whale skeleton. Drawing by Craig George and Hans Thewissen.

Drawing of skeleton including placement of some of the internal organs. By Craig George and Hans Thewissen.

THE THEWISSEN LAB: WHALE ORIGINS RESEARCH Presentation of research conducted by the laboratory of Dr. Hans Thewissen of NEOUCOM (Northeastern Ohio Universities Colleges of Medicine and Pharmacy).  Dr. Thewissen discovered a missing link between whales and their four-footed terrestrial ancestors. More information can be found on Dr. Thewissen Facebook page.

Greenland Whale Pelvis A clip art image of a Greenland whale (close relative to the bowhead) pelvis for students to cut out.

Bowhead whale femur (smaller bone) and pelvis (larger bone) from bowhead whale.

Bowhead whale femur (smaller bone) and pelvis (larger bone) from bowhead whale. Photo: Craig George